History Of Reddiars

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A History of Reddiyars

  • A History of Reddiyars

    by

    Dr.A.BALAMURALI .,B.E., M.C.A., M.B.A., M.Phil.,Ph.D

    INTRODUCTION

    Reddiyar(Tamil word – reddi(yar) with respect) is synonymous with Reddigaru (Telugu word Reddi(Garu)).Reddiyars also Reddiar or Reddy is caste title of prominent land owning, farming and mercantile social group of Tamil Nadu and abroad. They are found in all walks of life today.  Reddiyars community in Kerala is derived from Tamil speaking emigrants from south Tamil Nadu. Some of them speak in a unique dialect of Tamil with a mix of Malayalam and archaic Telugu that was in vogue when they left Andhra Pradesh many generations ago. Most of the population is based in cities like Trivandrum,Quilon,Chenganoor,Kottayam,Changanachery,Ernakulam,pathanamthitta,Thiruvalla and Allepey. Their roots lie in Tamil villages like Samugarengapuram,Seelathikulam,Nakkaneri,Reddiyarpatti,Paruthippadu,Munanchipatti,Moolakkarapatti,Thattankulam and Pathinalamperi in Tirunelveli district. Sri Edger Thurston a British anthropologist in his book “ Castes and Tribes of southern India” mentions that Kondareddisworship Muthyalamma,the Goddess of Cholera and Small Pox. In every Reddy village settlements there is a temple for Muthyalamma also known as Chandhanamariamma. In Nakkuneri village of Nanguneri taluk there is an exclusive temple for Muthyalamma.

    Anavota Reddy (1335-1364 CE) of Reddy_dynasty extended the dominion of the kingdom to Rajahmundry on the north, Kanchi on the south and Srisailam on the west. In a battle at Vallioor, Reddiapuram army defeated Travancore army in 14th Century.[2] In a information Board at the entrance of the Vallioor Murugan Temple it is stated that 14th century vallioor War – Reddiapuram army defeated Travancore Army at vallioor Battle. After this war Reddiyars settled at Samugarengapuram, Seelathikulam and all over Tirunelveli Region in 14th century.

    This seems to be an undisputable evidence to establish that the Reddy population at the above mentioned villages are the descedants of Kondaveedu dynasty who have driffted to the South in the 14th century .

    Origin of Reddiyars

    Reddiyars are stated to be of the Solar Race ; and the genealogies of this tribe accordingly trace to them up to Kusha, the second son of Rama ,the Hero of the Great Solar epic of the Hindus..Anavota Reddy (1335-1364 CE) of Reddy dynasty extended the dominion of the kingdom to Rajahmundry on the north, Kanchi on the south and Srisailam on the west.

    துங்கபத்ரா நதிக்கரையில் விஜயநகரத்தைத் தலைநகராகக் கொண்டு அரசு ஒன்று கிபி 1330ல் உருவாகியிருந்தது. ஹரிஹரர், புக்கர் என்ற இரு சகோதரர்கள் குரு வித்யாரண்யரின் வழிகாட்டுதலில் இந்த அரசை ஏற்படுத்தியிருந்தனர். சிறிது சிறிதாக தென்னிந்தியாவின் பல பகுதிகளை தங்கள் அரசின் கீழ் கொண்டுவந்தனர் அவர்கள்.  புக்கரின் மகனான கம்பண்ணர் 1364ம் ஆண்டு வாக்கில் கொண்டவீடுரெட்டி அரசின் துணையோடு காஞ்சிபுரத்தின்மேல்  படையெடுத்து, அந்த நகரைக் கைப்பற்றி அங்கேயே தங்கியிருந்தார். அவரோடு அவர் மனைவியான கங்காதேவியும் வந்திருந்தார். கம்பண்ணரின் திக்விஜயத்தில் நடந்த நிகழ்ச்சிகளை ‘மதுரா விஜயம்’ என்ற பெயரில் ஒரு அழகான காவியமாக பின்னால் எழுதினார் கங்காதேவி. காஞ்சிபுரத்தில் தங்கியிருந்த கம்பண்ணரை சந்திக்க வந்தார் ஒரு பெண். தமிழகத்தின் இருண்ட நிலையைப் பற்றிக்கூறிய அவர், திருவரங்கமும், சிதம்பரமும், மதுரையும் அடைந்த அழிவுகளை எடுத்துரைத்தார். அங்குள்ள கோவில்களில் பூஜைகள் நின்றுபோய்விட்டதையும், பல கோவில்கள் மண்ணடித்துப் போனதையும் சொல்லிய அவர், பாண்டியர்களுக்கு இந்திரன் அளித்த வாளை எடுத்து கம்பண்ணரிடம் கொடுத்தார். தாம் மீனாட்சி தேவியே என்றும், மதுரையை இந்த வாளின் துணைகொண்டு மீட்குமாறும் சொல்லி மறைந்தார் என்று மதுராவிஜயம் கூறுகிறது.

    திருவிழாவின் ஆறாம் திருநாள் – விடை வாகனத்தில் அம்மையும் அப்பனும்

    தமது படைகளைத் திரட்டிக்கொண்டு 1378ம் ஆண்டு மதுரை நோக்கி வந்தார் குமார கம்பண்ணர். மதுரையை அப்போது சிக்கந்தர்கான் என்ற சுல்தான் ஆண்டுகொண்டிருந்தார். அவரது படைகள் கம்பண்ணரிடம் தோற்றோடின. மதுரையை விட்டுத் தப்பித்த சுல்தான், திருப்பரங்குன்றம் மலைமேலேறி பதுங்கிக்கொண்டான். கம்பண்ணரின் படைகள் திருப்பரங்குன்றம் மலையைச் சூழ்ந்து முற்றுகையிட்டன. சுல்தானின் படைபலம் சொற்பமே என்று உணர்ந்த கம்பண்ணர், அவரை தன்னுடன் ‘ஒண்டிக்கு ஒண்டி’ வருமாறு அழைத்தார். இருவருக்கும் இடையே திருப்பரங்குன்றம் மலைமீது துவந்த யுத்தம் நடைபெற்றது. இதில் வெற்றிபெற்று, சிக்கந்தரைக் கொன்றார் கம்பண்ணர். அவருக்கு அந்த மலைமேல் ஒரு சமாதியும் எழுப்பச்செய்தார்.

    பின் படைகளை அழைத்துக்கொண்டு வெற்றி வீரராக மதுரை திரும்பி, மீனாட்சி அம்மையின் கோவிலை அடைந்தார், இடிபாடுகளை அகற்றி,  மண்ணை நீக்கி, கருவரையின் முன் வைக்கப்பட்ட, சுல்தான்களின் படைகளால் சேதம் செய்யப்பட்ட லிங்கத்தை எடுத்து வைத்துவிட்டு, கருவரையின் மூடப்பட்ட சுவரை இடித்து உள்ளே நுழைந்தார். அங்கு சொக்கநாதரின் மேல் சார்த்தப்பட்ட மாலை வாடாமல், கருவறையை மூடிய போது ஏற்றப்பட்ட தீபம் அணையாமல் அவருக்கு தரிசனம் கிடைத்தது. அதன்பின், கம்பண்ண உடையார் மதுரையில் தங்கி நகரையும் கோவிலையும் சீர்ப்படுத்த முனைந்தார்.ரெட்டியாபுரம் படைகள் மேலும் திருநெல்வேலியை விடுவிக்க அச்சுதராயர் தலைமையில் சென்று வென்றது.

    சுல்தான்களால்  சேதப்பட்ட லிங்கம், இன்று சுவாமி சன்னதியின் இடப்புறத்தில், எல்லாம் வல்ல சித்தர் சன்னதிக்கு அருகில் உள்ளது.

    They migrated from Andhra Pradesh and Orissa to Tamil Nadu particularly to Madurai District at the period of Thirumalai Nayakkar ruling.

    Reddiyars the major form the thriving communities of India significant since medieval period. Their beginning start with Kapus. According to H.A. Stuart, “The term Kapu means watchman and Reddi means king”. Kapu was a powerful Dravidian tribe in the early centuries of Christian era. Regarding their origin the earliest portion of the Kohan chronicle and Mackenzie collection give much information about the reign of 28 rulers. In the Telugu districts they were land holding community, held much respects next to Brahmins. According to Rev.J. Foulks the Reddis are called under various names eg, 1 Rattu, 1 Ruth, Ratta, Reddi etc. Dr. Burnell points out that the family of Reddis belong to Dravidian origin, and states Rashtraas an instance of Sankritisasiton of Dravidian names. He considers their name to be a mythological perversion of ‘Ratta’, which is as same as Kanharese and Telugu ‘Reddi’.Rastrakuda King Janakan of Mithilapuri was the forefather of Reddiyars. His daughter Janaki or Sitha married to Great Rama ( Ramayana)

    In the second century A.D. and in the next historical references to them, one can find them high up in the Northern Dekkan amongst kingdom conquered by the Chalukkiars about the fourth century A.D. J.F. Fleet writes that Reddy’s first appearance found at Kanarese of Bombay in the fifth century A.D. They were interrupted with the attack of the Pallavas and other rulers during the eighth century A.D. Afterwards their rule stopped for a while due to the invasion of Rastrakuta kings. It was difficult to say, who was the first Rastrakuta king ruled. The earliest notice about the Reddy family were found in the Western chalukya inscription. The Miraj plate inscription says that, Jayasimha I resorted the fortunes of Chalukya dynasty by defeating other rulers the Rashta kutas – Krishna, an illustrious son of Rashtrakuta family, who possessed 800 elephants. According to Meguti inscription. Appayika Govinda, had invaded the chalukya kingdom but later he was repulsed by Pulikesi II. During the fifth and sixth century A.D., the Rastrakuta dynasty commanded considerable importance in central and Northern India. Subsequently other inscriptions also depicts that Rastrakutas were descendants of yadu, the family of Dravidian origin. It is believed that; ‘Rashtras’ as instance of the Sanskritising of Dravidian names.

    Kondavidu Reddy dynasty

    The Reddy dynasty (1325 – 1448 CE) was established

    in southern India by Prolaya Vema Reddy. The region that was

    ruled by the Reddy dynasty is now part of modern day coastal

    and central Andhra Pradesh. Prolaya Vema Reddy was part of

    the confederation that started a movement against the invading

    Muslim armies of the Delhi Sultanate in 1323 CE and succeeded

    in repulsing them from Warangal. Reddy is a social group or

    caste of India, predominantly inhabiting Andhra Pradesh.

    The Reddy dynasty emerged into prominence in due course of time at Kondavidu after the decline of the Kakatya kingdom. From 1420 to 1424, Virabadra Reddi son of general Alladi Reddi succeeded Katyavema at Rajahmudry shed peace with Rayas and Gangas of Kalinga. The Gangas and Rayas attacked Rajahmundry frequently and the kingdom finally fell as an easy prey to the Gajapathis in 1445 A.D. After becoming popular in India, especially Madras presidency they spread their tentacles towards South, ie places of Tamil Nadu. According to Stuart, their castes subdivisions were recorded in the places of Madurai and Tirunelveli.

    Reddys were known for their fortifications. Two major hill forts, one at Kondapalli, 20 km north west of Vijayawada and another at Kondavidu about 30 km west of Guntur .

    The forts of Bellamkonda,stand testimony to the fort building skill of the Reddy kings. The Vinukonda and Nagarjunakonda in the Palnadu region were also part of the Reddy kingdom .

    Prolaya Vema Reddy

    Prolaya Vema Reddy was the first king of the Reddy dynasty. Vema assembled a large army of peasants and herdsmen, and adopted

    guerrilla warfare. It is said that when he attacked the Muslim army,Vema Reddy had their water supply lines contaminated with sewage leading to dysentery in their ranks. Veera Ballala III of Dwarasamudra helped the coalition of Vema Reddy and Kapaya Nayaka. Vema chased the general of the Tughlaq army, Malik Maqbul to the Warangal fort and Kapaya Nayaka then stormed it and took control. Vema then led a blitzkrieg on the Kondavidu fort and hacked off the head of Maliq Gurjar, the Muslim commander there and liberated Nidudavolu, Vundi, and Pithapuram after pitched battles. Vema then defeated an army of Jalaluddin Shah in a raid on Tondaimandalam, while Veera Ballala engaged the Sultan himself. Veera Ballala was finally defeated and skinned alive, and his dry skin was hung from the walls of Madurai where Ibn Battuta reportedly saw it later. Undaunted, Vema continued his lightning raids on the Muslim-occupied forts of Bellamkonda, Vinukonda and Nagarjunakonda and captured them all. He then declared himself Raja (king) with

    Kondavidu as his capital. The Kondapalli fort was built by him .

    His famous inscriptions from this period state:

    “ I restored all the agraharas of Brahmins, which had been taken away by the evil Muslim k kings. I am indeed an Agastya to the ocean which was made of the Muslim. ”

    Prolaya Vema Reddy bestowed a number of agraharas on the Brahmins. He was revered by the title of Apratima-Bhudana-Parasurama.

    He commissioned major repairs to the Srisailam Mallikarjuna Swami temple, and had a flight of steps built from the Krishna river to the temple. The Narasimha Swamy temple at Ahobilam was built during his reign. He built 108 temples for Lord Shiva. The restoration of peace starting with his reign brought about a revival of literature and the arts. Errana, the translator of the Mahabharata, lived during his period .

    His territories extended from Srisailam to the east coast. Though there were no major battles but a little hostility existed between the Reddis and the Recherla chiefs.

    Vema was a great patron of learning and several well-known poets and scholars adorned his court. Yerra Pragada, the famous author of Harivamsa, was his court poet.

    He was a religious man, built temples and tanks and gave liberal grants to brahmans. For the welfare of his people, he planted trees on both sides of the roads and made arrangements for drinking water and edibles.

    Anavota Reddy

    Anavota Reddy (1335-1364 CE) was the son and successor of Prolaya Vema Reddy. During his reign, he was continuously engaged in wars against the Bahmanis, the Recharla Velamas and the Vijayanagara kings who often encroached on his territories. He changed the capital from Addanki to the more impregnable Kondavidu fort. He led his troops into Kalinga country along with his ally Choda Bhaktiraja. He conquered many small kingdoms like Nirvadyapura (present day Nidadavolu) ruled by Vengi Chalukyas, Vundi ruled by Suryavamsa Kshatriyas, Korukonda ruled by Kondaya Nayakas and Pithapuram ruled by Koppularajus by 1356 CE. He successfully resisted the advances of the Bahmanis and the Recherla Velamas. Bukkaraya I of Vijayanagara took advantage of his preoccupations with the Bahmanis and Recherla Velamas and occupied Srisailam and Markapuram. In spite of constant threats to his kingdom from these invaders, Anavota promoted prosperity. He collected reasonable taxes from the merchants and was an able ruler and protector of Hindu dharma like his father, Prolaya Vema Reddy.

    Anavema Reddy

    Anavema Reddy (1364-1386 CE) was the younger brother of Anavota Reddy and succeeded the latter as Anavota’s son was quite young at the time of Anavota Reddy’s death. Anavema Reddy was considered the greatest ruler of the Kondavidu line. He defeated the traditional rivals, Recherla Velamas in a pitched battle and conquered some of their territory. He reconquered Srisailam which was lost to Vijayanagara. He occupied the Panara and Kona kingdoms of the Godavari delta. He wrested Rajahmundry from the Muslims and razed down a Muslim Mazar (shrine) which was built on top of a Hindu Temple. He then scaled theKorukonda fort by night with a small force and freed it from Muslim control.The Reddy army went as far north as Simhachalam. He conquered the Simhachalam fort and parts of the Kalinga kingdom. He led successful campaigns under his Brahmin general Chennama Nayaka against the local chiefs like the Manchikonda, Koppula, Chalukya and the Matsya families. Anavema’s brother-in-law Choda Bhima was expelled from the Vengi Chalukyan kingdom by his brother Choda Annadeva. Anavema captured the fortress of Divi. He then marched to Nirvadyapura (Nidadavolu), defeated Choda Annadeva and instilled Choda Bhima in Nirvadyapura. He built the Vira Siromandapam at the Srisailam temple. His inscription from Srisailam states that their family belongs to the ‘Vellacheri’ gotram. He extended the dominion of the kingdom toRajahmundry on the north, Kanchi on the south and Srisailam on the west.[4]

    Kumaragiri Reddy

    Kumaragiri Reddy (1386-1402 CE) was the son of Anavota Reddy and nephew of Anavema Reddy. Kumaragiri’s accession to the throne was challenged by his cousins Vema and Macha, sons of Pedakomati Vemareddy. There was discord and the kingdom plunged into civil war. Kumaragiri emerged victorious and was supported by his brother-in-law Kataya Vema Reddy. However peace was restored only after Pedakomati Vemareddy was promised that he would become Kumaragiri’s successor at Kondavidu. Kumaragiri was an easy going ruler who enjoyed a life of comfort and luxury. The governance of the kingdom was entrusted to his brother-in-law and senapati Kataya Vema Reddy. Kumaragiri Reddy had two daughters, Anitalli and Hariharamba.[18]

    Kataya Vema Reddy

    Kataya Vema Reddy (1395-1414 CE) the senapati of Kumaragiri Reddy led a large army against Vijayanagara ruler Harihara II who had invaded the Reddy kingdom and wrested Tripurantakam and Vinukonda. In the ensuing battle, the Vijayanagara forces suffered a severe defeat. However both parties reached a compromise and decided to become allies against their common archrivals – the Bahmani sultans and the Recherla Velamas of Rachakonda who had formed an alliance. This political alliance between Vijayanagara and the Reddy kingdom was cemented further by a matrimonial alliance. Harihara II of Vijayanagara gave his daughter in marriage to Kataya Vema Reddy’s son Kataya. An agreement was reached that Harihara II should give up Tripurantakam and Vinukonda, while retaining Srisailam for himself. Kataya Vema suppressed the Padmanayaka Velama chieftains of Telangana and embarked on a extensive eastern campaign. He was ably assisted by Vema Reddy and Dodda Reddy, the two princes of the Rajahmundry kingdom. He led his forces up to Simhachalam and annexed it to the Reddy kingdom. Thereafter he constituted the eastern kingdom – the Rajamahendravara ( Rajahmundry) Rajya and declared it a province of the Reddy kingdom of Kondavidu. Kumaragiri conferred the rank of viceroy to Kataya Vema for the newly formed eastern Reddy Kingdom. This division of the kingdom resulted in widespread discontent. Kataya Vema had a son named Kumaragiri Reddy II.

    Pedakomati Vemareddy

    Pedakomati Vemareddy (1403-1420 CE). Taking advantage of the chaotic state of affairs, Pedakomati Vemareddy challenged the authority of Kumaragiri Reddy in Kondavidu. Kumaragiri Reddy could not withstand the might of Pedakomati. He retired to Rajahmundry in 1402 CE, shortly after which he died. Pedakomati Vemareddy assumed control at Kondavidu. Kumaragiri’s deposition by Pedakomati was resented by Kataya Vema Reddy. Kataya Vema defied the central authority of Pedakomati Vemareddy and asserted his independence in Rajahmundry. Pedakomati tried to bring back Rajahmundry into his fold but could not succeed. This internal war between the two factions considerably weakened the Reddy power and made the Reddy kingdom vulnerable to neighbouring rulers. In 1408 CE, with the help of Velamas of Devarakonda, Choda Annadeva was able to recover his principality which was annexed by Kataya Vema. Devaraya I of Vijayanagara occupied Motupalli, the famous sea port. According to Velugotivari Vamsavali (a Velama chronicle of medieval period), Pedakomati Vemareddy avenged his brother Macha Reddy’s death by slaying Kumara Vedagiri, the Recherla Velama chief of Devarakonda in a battle. Pedakomati Vemareddy fought the battle of Gundugolunu with Kataya Vema Reddy in 1414 CE in which Kataya Vema was slain by Pedakomati Vema’s able general Gajarao Tipparao. Pedakomati Vemareddy was killed in 1420 CE in the battle of Kondavidu with Lingama Nayaka, the Velama prince of Devarakonda.

    Racha Vema Reddy

    Pedakomati Vema was succeeded by his son Racha Vema Reddy (1420-1434 CE) at Kondavidu. Racha was a cruel ruler and oppressed his subjects. He was murdered by one of his own subjects. The death of Racha Vema ended the Reddy kingdom of Kondavidu. However the eastern branch of the Reddy kingdom in Rajahmundry was still in power.

    Gondesi Reddy

    Gondesi Allada Reddy (1414-1423 CE), a near relative of Kataya Vema Reddy succeeded to the throne of Rajamahendravara Rajya (Rajahmundry) after the death of Kataya Vema. Allada ruled on behalf of the young Kumaragiri Reddy II – son of Kataya Vema Reddy who was only 10 years old at the time. Allada Reddy defended the Rajahmundry kingdom against his enemies. He killed Choda Annadeva in 1415 CE. He inflicted a humiliating defeat on Pedakomati Vemareddy. He died in 1420 CE.

    Veerabhadra Reddy

    Veerabhadra Reddy (1423-1448 CE), son of Allada Reddy succeeded to the throne of Rajamahendravaram (Rajahmundry). He and his brother Allaya Vema continued their father’s policy of annexation and invasion of Kalinga. However, the suzerainty of Kalinga rulers was to be recognized. In 1443 CE, determined to put an end to the aggressions of the Reddy kingdom, the Gajapati ruler Kapilendra of Kalinga formed an alliance with the Velamas and launched an attack on the Reddy kingdom of Rajahmundry. Veerabhadra Reddy allied himself with Vijayanagara ruler Devaraya II and defeated Kapilendra. After the death of Devaraya II in 1446 CE, he was succeeded by his son, Mallikarjuna Raya. Overwhelmed by difficulties at home, Mallikarjuna Raya recalled the Vijayanagara forces from Rajahmundry. Veerabhadra Reddy died in 1448 CE. Seizing this opportunity, the Gajapati ruler Kapilendra sent an army under the leadership of his son Hamvira into the Reddy kingdom, took Rajahmundry and gained control of the Reddy kingdom. The Gajapatis eventually lost control of coastal Andhra after the death of Kapilendra. The territories of the Reddy kingdom eventually came under the control of the Vijayanagara Empire.[

    Religion

    The Reddy rulers played a prominent part in post-Kakatiya Andhradesa. The Kakatiya empire came to an end in 1323 CE after the Muslim army of the Delhi sultanateinvaded Warangal and captured Kakatiya ruler Pratapa Rudra. Warangal fell to the Muslim invaders and Ulugh Khan commanded Warangal and Telangana. During this time of foreign invasion and chaos in Telugu country, seeds of revolt were sown by two patriotic souls, Annaya Mantri and Kolani Rudradeva. They united the Telugu nobles with the singular purpose of rescuing Telugu country from Muslim domination and re-establish Hindu Dharma. Musunuri Prolaya Nayaka, Prolaya Vema Reddy, Recharla Singama Nayaka, Koppula Prolaya Nayaka and Manchikonda Ganapatinayaka were the prominent nobles. Musunuri Prolaya Nayaka was the chosen leader of this confederation of Telugu nobles who united and vowed to put an end to Muslim rule. They succeeded in repulsing the Muslim forces from Warangal and then established independent kingdoms of their own.[20]

    It was during this chaotic period in Andhra history that Prolaya Vema Reddy established the Reddy kingdom in 1325 CE as a bulwark of Hinduism against the Islamic invaders. The Reddy rulers patronised and protected Hinduism and its institutions. The Brahmins were given liberal grants by the Reddy kings and the agraharas of Brahmins were restored. Vedic studies were encouraged. The Hindu temples of Srisailam and Ahobilam were provided with more facilities. Prolaya Vema Reddy bestowed a number of agraharas on the Brahmins. He was revered by the title of Apratima-Bhudana-Parasurama.[17] He commissioned major repairs to the Srisailam Mallikarjuna Swami temple, and had a flight of steps built from the Krishna river to the temple. The Narasimha Swamy temple at Ahobilam was built during his reign. He built 108 temples for Lord Shiva.

    Literature

    Telugu literature blossomed during the period of stability under the Reddy kings. The Reddy kings also patronized Sanskrit, the sacred Hindu language. Several of the Reddy kings themselves were distinguished scholars and authors. Kumaragiri Reddy, Kataya Vema Reddy and Pedakomati Vemareddy were the most outstanding among them. Errapragada (Errana), Srinatha and Potana were the remarkable poets of this period. Errapragada, the last of the Kavitraya (Trinity of Poets) was the court poet of Prolaya Vema Reddy. He completed the Telugu translation of the Mahabharata. He completed the rendition of the Aranya Parva of Mahabharata left incomplete by Nannaya Bhattu (Aadi Kavi who started the translation of Mahabharata into Telugu). He wrote Hari Vamsa and Narasimha Purana. Errana’s translation of the Ramayana in Chapu form (a style of poetry) has been lost.[21]

    Srinatha was considered the most distinguished writer of the Reddy period. He was the court poet of Pedakomati Vemareddy.[22] He wrote ‘Palnadu Viracharitra’ which chronicles the Reddy dynasty. His other works include ‘Pandita-radhya Charita’, ‘Sivaratrimahatmya,’ ‘Haravilasa’, ‘Bhimakhanda’ and ‘Kasikhanda’.

    Gona Buddha Reddy lived during the 13th century so actually belonged to the Kakatiya period. He is famous for his Ranganatha Ramayanam. His translation of the Ramayana was a pioneering work and is still used during puppet shows.[23]

    Administration

    The administration was carried according to the “Dharmasutras” . One sixth of agriculture surplus was levied as tax. Under the reign of Anavota Reddy custom duties and taxes on trade were lifted. As a result trade flourished. Sea trade was carried through the port Motupalli . Large number of merchants settled down near it. Celebrating ‘Vasantotsavalu’ was revived during the rule of Anavema Reddy. The Brahmins were given liberal grants by the Reddy kings. Caste system was observed. Heavy taxes by Racha Vema Reddy made him highly unpopular.

    Reddy Reddy sub castes

    Old cliche in Telugu (odlalo unnanni rakalu redlalo kalavu) says that there as many varieties of Reddys as there are varieties in Rice to give an idea of the diversity. Some of the well known sub castes of Reddys are Ayodhi Reddys (in Tamil Nadu), Motati Reddys, Neravati reddy, Pedakanti Reddy, Chowdary Reddy(saudary Reddy), Gudati Reddy, Reddy Gandla, Pakanati Reddys, Velanati Reddys, Namadarlu, Vadde Reddys, Panta Reddys,Gandla reddy, Ganjam Reddy (in Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Orissa), Pokanati Reddys, Nanugonda Reddys, Gone Kapu, Palle Reddy and Konda Reddy. Hyderabad and Rangareddy are dominated by Gudati, Gone Kapu and Reddy kapu sub castes. Adilabad and Karimnagar have Reddy Gandla, gudati and Motati in majority. Motati Reddy, gudati reddy and gandla reddy’s do business in oil and beedi leaves. They vary in some of their customs. For example, Pedakanti Reddy women do not wear talibottu and Kapu Reddy women wear saree with one belt like thing coming from the middle.

  • MIGRATION OF REDDIARS TO TAMILNADU

    MIGRATION OF REDDIARS TO TAMILNADUதுங்கபத்ரா நதிக்கரையில் விஜயநகரத்தைத் தலைநகராகக் கொண்டு அரசு ஒன்று கிபி 1330ல் உருவாகியிருந்தது. ஹரிஹரர், புக்கர் என்ற இரு சகோதரர்கள் குரு வித்யாரண்யரின் வழிகாட்டுதலில் இந்த அரசை ஏற்படுத்தியிருந்தனர். சிறிது சிறிதாக தென்னிந்தியாவின் பல பகுதிகளை தங்கள் அரசின் கீழ் கொண்டுவந்தனர் அவர்கள்.  புக்கரின் மகனான கம்பண்ணர் 1364ம் ஆண்டு வாக்கில் கொண்டவீடுரெட்டி அரசின் துணையோடு காஞ்சிபுரத்தின்மேல்  படையெடுத்து, அந்த நகரைக் கைப்பற்றி அங்கேயே தங்கியிருந்தார். அவரோடு அவர் மனைவியான கங்காதேவியும் வந்திருந்தார். கம்பண்ணரின் திக்விஜயத்தில் நடந்த நிகழ்ச்சிகளை ‘மதுரா விஜயம்’ என்ற பெயரில் ஒரு அழகான காவியமாக பின்னால் எழுதினார் கங்காதேவி. காஞ்சிபுரத்தில் தங்கியிருந்த கம்பண்ணரை சந்திக்க வந்தார் ஒரு பெண். தமிழகத்தின் இருண்ட நிலையைப் பற்றிக்கூறிய அவர், திருவரங்கமும், சிதம்பரமும், மதுரையும் அடைந்த அழிவுகளை எடுத்துரைத்தார். அங்குள்ள கோவில்களில் பூஜைகள் நின்றுபோய்விட்டதையும், பல கோவில்கள் மண்ணடித்துப் போனதையும் சொல்லிய அவர், பாண்டியர்களுக்கு இந்திரன் அளித்த வாளை எடுத்து கம்பண்ணரிடம் கொடுத்தார். தாம் மீனாட்சி தேவியே என்றும், மதுரையை இந்த வாளின் துணைகொண்டு மீட்குமாறும் சொல்லி மறைந்தார் என்று மதுராவிஜயம் கூறுகிறது.

    திருவிழாவின் ஆறாம் திருநாள் – விடை வாகனத்தில் அம்மையும் அப்பனும் 

    தமது படைகளைத் திரட்டிக்கொண்டு 1378ம் ஆண்டு மதுரை நோக்கி வந்தார் குமார கம்பண்ணர். மதுரையை அப்போது சிக்கந்தர்கான் என்ற சுல்தான் ஆண்டுகொண்டிருந்தார். அவரது படைகள் கம்பண்ணரிடம் தோற்றோடின. மதுரையை விட்டுத் தப்பித்த சுல்தான், திருப்பரங்குன்றம் மலைமேலேறி பதுங்கிக்கொண்டான். கம்பண்ணரின் படைகள் திருப்பரங்குன்றம் மலையைச் சூழ்ந்து முற்றுகையிட்டன. சுல்தானின் படைபலம் சொற்பமே என்று உணர்ந்த கம்பண்ணர், அவரை தன்னுடன் ‘ஒண்டிக்கு ஒண்டி’ வருமாறு அழைத்தார். இருவருக்கும் இடையே திருப்பரங்குன்றம் மலைமீது துவந்த யுத்தம் நடைபெற்றது. இதில் வெற்றிபெற்று, சிக்கந்தரைக் கொன்றார் கம்பண்ணர். அவருக்கு அந்த மலைமேல் ஒரு சமாதியும் எழுப்பச்செய்தார்.

    பின் படைகளை அழைத்துக்கொண்டு வெற்றி வீரராக மதுரை திரும்பி, மீனாட்சி அம்மையின் கோவிலை அடைந்தார், இடிபாடுகளை அகற்றி,  மண்ணை நீக்கி, கருவரையின் முன் வைக்கப்பட்ட, சுல்தான்களின் படைகளால் சேதம் செய்யப்பட்ட லிங்கத்தை எடுத்து வைத்துவிட்டு, கருவரையின் மூடப்பட்ட சுவரை இடித்து உள்ளே நுழைந்தார். அங்கு சொக்கநாதரின் மேல் சார்த்தப்பட்ட மாலை வாடாமல், கருவறையை மூடிய போது ஏற்றப்பட்ட தீபம் அணையாமல் அவருக்கு தரிசனம் கிடைத்தது. அதன்பின், கம்பண்ண உடையார் மதுரையில் தங்கி நகரையும் கோவிலையும் சீர்ப்படுத்த முனைந்தார்.ரெட்டியாபுரம் படைகள் மேலும் திருநெல்வேலியை விடுவிக்க அச்சுதராயர் தலைமையில் சென்று வென்றது.

    சுல்தான்களால்  சேதப்பட்ட லிங்கம், இன்று சுவாமி சன்னதியின் இடப்புறத்தில், எல்லாம் வல்ல சித்தர் சன்னதிக்கு அருகில் உள்ளது.

    When one looks  the ethnographical sketch of India, it is almost surprising to note that various castes and sects had ruled the nation. They have been associated with politics, economics, theology, culture and so on. Nowadays, the study of history is mostly associated with the political condition of a nation along with the socio, economic structure of a particular society. Again the study of history is mainly related to events, rituals and taboos that took place in a particular society. Study of history is meaningless if it have not been related to the development of societies, castes or creeds.

    The history of India too is viewed abundantly based upon Rastrakutas, Kakathiyas, Chalukyas, Pallavas, Guptas, Mauryas, Rajputs, Mogals, Khilji, Lodi, Cholas, Cheras, Pandhyas, Nayakas, Sultans etc. Besides these it has been stated that India is always a breeding ground for castes. In India almost three thousands castes have been identified by historians and each one has it’s own, culture, tradition, background and religious worships.

    MEANING OF THE CASTE

    The word caste derived from the Spanish word ‘Casta’ which means a breed, race or a complex of hereditary qualities. The portuguese applied this term to different classes of people in India known as ‘jati’. There have been several other definitions too attributed to the word ‘Caste’. According to E.A.H. Blunt “Caste endogamous groups bearing a common name, membership of which is hereditary. The existing caste system comes into being when it be comes an integral part of religious dogma which divides the people into superior and to interior groups with different responsibilities functions and standards of living”.

    ORIGIN OF CASTES

    There are differences of opinion among scholars with regard to the origin of the caste system although it is admitted that on all ground it is an ancient institution in India. The origin of the caste system in India is based on two important disciplines or race namely, the Aryans, non Aryans. It is in fact based on colour consciousness and as a result caste system has evolved to establish the supremacy of the blood, life, culture, society, polity and so on. In ancient studies, the term, ‘Varna’ refers to four important Varnas maintained by manu. They are Brahmanas, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, Sudras. They were actually names of classes rather than of castes during the pre-historic period. In the Buddhistic literature, Varna is identified with the colour of the garment that the people wear. According to Varnashrama, white for Brahmans, red for the Kshatriyas, yellow for Vaisya and that of the Sudra black. In the Kshatriya class, there were so many prominent castes and Reddiars are one among them.

    ORIGIN OF REDDIARS

    Reddiars the major form the thriving communities of India significant since medieval period. Their beginning start with Kapus. According to H.A. Stuart, “The term Kapu means watchman and Reddi means king”. Kapu was a powerful Dravidian tribe in the early centuries of Christian era. Regarding their origin the earliest portion of the Kohan chronicle and Mackenzie collection give much information about the reign of 28 rulers. In the Telugu districts they were land holding community, held much respects next to Brahmins.
    According to Rev.J. Foulks the Reddis are called under various names eg, 1 Rattu, 1 Ruth, Ratta, Reddi etc. Dr. Burnell points out that the family of Reddis belong to Dravidian origin, and states Rashtraas an instance of Sankritisasiton of Dravidian names. He considers their name to be a mythological perversion of ‘Ratta’, which is as same as Kanharese and Telugu ‘Reddi’. In the second century A.D. and in the next historical references to them, one can find them high up in the Northern Dekkan amongst kingdom conquered by the Chalukkiars about the fourth century A.D.

    J.F. Fleet writes that Reddy’s first appearance found at Kanarese of Bombay in the fifth century A.D. They were interrupted with the attack of the Pallavas and other rulers during the eighth century A.D. Afterwards their rule stopped for a while due to the invasion of Rastrakuta kings. It was difficult to say, who was the first Rastrakuta king ruled.

    The earliest notice about the Reddy family were found in the Western chalukya inscription. The Miraj plate inscription says that, Jayasimha I resorted the fortunes of Chalukya dynasty by defeating other rulers the Rashta kutas – Krishna, an illustrious son of Rashtrakuta family, who possessed 800 elephants. According to Meguti inscription. Appayika Govinda, had invaded the chalukya kingdom but later he was repulsed by Pulikesi II. During the fifth and sixth century A.D., the Rastrakuta dynasty commanded considerable importance in central and Northern India. Subsequently other inscriptions also depicts that Rastrakutas were descendants of yadu, the family of Dravidian origin. It is believed that; ‘Rashtras’ as instance of the Sanskritising of Dravidian names.

    The Reddy dynasty emerged into prominence in due course of time at Kondavidu after the decline of the Kakatya kingdom. From 1420 to 1424, Virabadra Reddi son of general Alladi Reddi succeeded Katyavema at Rajahmudry shed peace with Rayas and Gangas of Kalinga. The Gangas and Rayas attacked Rajahmundry frequently and the kingdom finally fell as an easy prey to the Gajapathis in 1445 A.D. After becoming popular in India, especially Madras presidency they spread their tentacles towards South, ie places of Tamil Nadu. According to Stuart, their castes subdivisions were recorded in the places of Madurai and Tirunelveli.

    REDDIARS IN TAMIL NADU

    Reddiars or Kapus are the largest caste in the Madras Presidency, numbering more than two million. The Reddiars are an agricultural class speaking Telugu and followed the Hindu religion as other Telugu castes. They were the caste of cultivators and farmers of Telugu country. This community was very prominent in Andhra Pradesh from where it spread its sphere of influence to neighbouring states like Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. In Karnataka they were called as okelyas. In Tamil Nadu they spread their tentacles during 13th and 14th centuries A.D., due to oppression of the Bahmini Muslim dynasty. By that time, Muslims spread their sphere of influence from north India to south India by means of plundering expeditions and unlawful encroachments. Their main aim was to spread islam by all means and to bring India under one banner of islam. This led to a section of the Reddiars to switch over to neighbouring states.
    Besides this, the mass exodus of Reddiars, emenated due to the frequent monsoon failures, acute drought and famine. Since most of the Reddiar Community resorted to agriculture, they could not tolerate these maladies and proceeded towards neighbouring places for their livelyhood. As a result they settled wherever they received good fortune. As they had been migrated, group by group, it was very easy for them to lead a happy and prosperous life where they settled and derived their distinct culture of their own. They were Telugu speaking people maintained their distinct identity from all other people.

    It was during the down fall of the Vijayanagar empire, the Bahmini sultans ravaged the Hindu territories and resorted to them of untold sufferings. Their belongings were plundered, and several people of Vijayanagaram country were butchered mercilessly when the plundering epoch continued, the natives became helpless and resorted to mass exodus to neighbouring states. Consequently several kingdom ruled under Krishnadevaraya in Madurai, Chengi, Tirchi, etc declared independence. These places were ruled by the veteran rulers such as Thirumalai Nayak, Reghunatha Nayak, Krishnappa Nayak who encouraged the Telugu men under their shadow and extended them all sorts of assistances. As a result of it many of the natives were accommodated in their military and they were made as to fight against Mysore, Sethupathi’s of Ramnad and Travancore rulers. The Nayaks gave preference to the Telugu people in the day today administration and governmental affairs. Lot of lands were presented to them as free gifts. So during their administration, most of the lands came under the direct control of the Telugu speaking people. In course of time the Telugu people became prosperous and were called as land owning people in Tamil Nadu. They commanded much respect in the society.

    After attaining growth in their areas they concentrated their attention upon the neighbouring districts like Virudhunagar, Tirunelveli, Madurai, Trichi, Dharapuri etc. They permanently settled in these areas and developed the culture of their own. They flourished along with their agricultural works.

    During the British administration the Telugu people, especially the Reddiars became prosperous as a result of their welfares measures and reforms activities. The British consolidated the principalities of Madras presidency for the easy administration. The consolidation of British administration under Madras presidency made easy for all the people of the region to migrate easily from one place to another. Naturally the Telugu people freely moved from one place to another for their food and shelter. Being prosperous they were devoid of any hurdles or obstruction for their settlement in any of the places in the presidency. Hence, the Reddiar Community, the prominent among the Telugu speaking established their families at the suburbs ofVirudhunagar, Tirunelveli, Ramnad, Kamudhi, Trichi, South Arcot, North Arcot, Hosur and other place

  • துங்கபத்ரா நதிக்கரையில் விஜயநகரத்தைத் தலைநகராகக் கொண்டு அரசு ஒன்று கிபி 1330ல் உருவாகியிருந்தது. ஹரிஹரர், புக்கர் என்ற இரு சகோதரர்கள் குரு வித்யாரண்யரின் வழிகாட்டுதலில் இந்த அரசை ஏற்படுத்தியிருந்தனர். சிறிது சிறிதாக தென்னிந்தியாவின் பல பகுதிகளை தங்கள் அரசின் கீழ் கொண்டுவந்தனர் அவர்கள்.  புக்கரின் மகனான கம்பண்ணர் 1364ம் ஆண்டு வாக்கில் கொண்டவீடுரெட்டி அரசின் துணையோடு காஞ்சிபுரத்தின்மேல்  படையெடுத்து, அந்த நகரைக் கைப்பற்றி அங்கேயே தங்கியிருந்தார். அவரோடு அவர் மனைவியான கங்காதேவியும் வந்திருந்தார். கம்பண்ணரின் திக்விஜயத்தில் நடந்த நிகழ்ச்சிகளை ‘மதுரா விஜயம்’ என்ற பெயரில் ஒரு அழகான காவியமாக பின்னால் எழுதினார் கங்காதேவி. காஞ்சிபுரத்தில் தங்கியிருந்த கம்பண்ணரை சந்திக்க வந்தார் ஒரு பெண். தமிழகத்தின் இருண்ட நிலையைப் பற்றிக்கூறிய அவர், திருவரங்கமும், சிதம்பரமும், மதுரையும் அடைந்த அழிவுகளை எடுத்துரைத்தார். அங்குள்ள கோவில்களில் பூஜைகள் நின்றுபோய்விட்டதையும், பல கோவில்கள் மண்ணடித்துப் போனதையும் சொல்லிய அவர், பாண்டியர்களுக்கு இந்திரன் அளித்த வாளை எடுத்து கம்பண்ணரிடம் கொடுத்தார். தாம் மீனாட்சி தேவியே என்றும், மதுரையை இந்த வாளின் துணைகொண்டு மீட்குமாறும் சொல்லி மறைந்தார் என்று மதுராவிஜயம் கூறுகிறது.திருவிழாவின் ஆறாம் திருநாள் – விடை வாகனத்தில் அம்மையும் அப்பனும்

    தமது படைகளைத் திரட்டிக்கொண்டு 1378ம் ஆண்டு மதுரை நோக்கி வந்தார் குமார கம்பண்ணர். மதுரையை அப்போது சிக்கந்தர்கான் என்ற சுல்தான் ஆண்டுகொண்டிருந்தார். அவரது படைகள் கம்பண்ணரிடம் தோற்றோடின. மதுரையை விட்டுத் தப்பித்த சுல்தான், திருப்பரங்குன்றம் மலைமேலேறி பதுங்கிக்கொண்டான். கம்பண்ணரின் படைகள் திருப்பரங்குன்றம் மலையைச் சூழ்ந்து முற்றுகையிட்டன. சுல்தானின் படைபலம் சொற்பமே என்று உணர்ந்த கம்பண்ணர், அவரை தன்னுடன் ‘ஒண்டிக்கு ஒண்டி’ வருமாறு அழைத்தார். இருவருக்கும் இடையே திருப்பரங்குன்றம் மலைமீது துவந்த யுத்தம் நடைபெற்றது. இதில் வெற்றிபெற்று, சிக்கந்தரைக் கொன்றார் கம்பண்ணர். அவருக்கு அந்த மலைமேல் ஒரு சமாதியும் எழுப்பச்செய்தார்.

    பின் படைகளை அழைத்துக்கொண்டு வெற்றி வீரராக மதுரை திரும்பி, மீனாட்சி அம்மையின் கோவிலை அடைந்தார், இடிபாடுகளை அகற்றி,  மண்ணை நீக்கி, கருவரையின் முன் வைக்கப்பட்ட, சுல்தான்களின் படைகளால் சேதம் செய்யப்பட்ட லிங்கத்தை எடுத்து வைத்துவிட்டு, கருவரையின் மூடப்பட்ட சுவரை இடித்து உள்ளே நுழைந்தார். அங்கு சொக்கநாதரின் மேல் சார்த்தப்பட்ட மாலை வாடாமல், கருவறையை மூடிய போது ஏற்றப்பட்ட தீபம் அணையாமல் அவருக்கு தரிசனம் கிடைத்தது. அதன்பின், கம்பண்ண உடையார் மதுரையில் தங்கி நகரையும் கோவிலையும் சீர்ப்படுத்த முனைந்தார்.ரெட்டியாபுரம் படைகள் மேலும் திருநெல்வேலியை விடுவிக்க அச்சுதராயர் தலைமையில் சென்று வென்றது.

    சுல்தான்களால்  சேதப்பட்ட லிங்கம், இன்று சுவாமி சன்னதியின் இடப்புறத்தில், எல்லாம் வல்ல சித்தர் சன்னதிக்கு அருகில் உள்ளது.

  • In a battle at Vallioor, Reddiapuram army defeated Travancore army in 14th Century.[2] A mural at the Tiruppudaimaruthur temple in Tirunelveli district in Tamil Nadu, shows the emissaries of the Vijayanagara king Achyutadeva Raya serving an ultimatum to the Travancore ruler Bhoothala Veera Udaya Marthanda Varma to pay tributes to him and return the Pandya territory to Sri Vallabhan. It also depicts the “Tamiraparani battle” between the armies of Achyutadeva Raya and Bhoothala Varma.[3]. They are believed to have moved into Tamil Nadu with the expansion of Vijayanagar empire along with other Telugu and Kannada origin social groups. They have their origin in Vannipuranam.
  • In a information Board at the entrance of the Vallioor Murugan Temple it is stated that 14th century vallioor War – Reddiapuram army defeated Travancore Army at vallioor Battle. After this war Reddiyars settled at Samugarengapuram, Seelathikulam and all over Tirunelveli Region in 14th century.
  • Reddiyars IN TAMIL NADU

    Reddiyars or Kapus are the largest caste in the Madras Presidency, numbering more than two million. The Reddiyars are an agricultural class speaking Telugu and followed the Hindu religion as other Telugu castes. They were the caste of cultivators and farmers of Telugu country. This community was very prominent in Andhra Pradesh from where it spread its sphere of influence to neighbouring states like Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. In Karnataka they were called as okelyas. In Tamil Nadu they spread their tentacles during 13th and 14th centuries A.D., due to oppression of the Bahmini Muslim dynasty. By that time, Muslims spread their sphere of influence from north India to south India by means of plundering expeditions and unlawful encroachments. Their main aim was to spread islam by all means and to bring India under one banner of islam. This led to a section of the Reddiyars to switch over to neighbouring states. Besides this, the mass exodus of Reddiyars, emenated due to the frequent monsoon failures, acute drought and famine. Since most of the Reddiyar Community resorted to agriculture, they could not tolerate these maladies and proceeded towards neighbouring places for their livelyhood. As a result they settled wherever they received good fortune. As they had been migrated, group by group, it was very easy for them to lead a happy and prosperous life where they settled and derived their distinct culture of their own. They were Telugu speaking people maintained their distinct identity from all other people. It was during the down fall of the Vijayanagar empire, the Bahmini sultans ravaged the Hindu territories and resorted to them of untold sufferings. Their belongings were plundered, and several people of Vijayanagaram country were butchered mercilessly when the plundering epoch continued, the natives became helpless and resorted to mass exodus to neighbouring states. Consequently several kingdom ruled under Krishnadevaraya in Madurai, Chengi, Tirchi, etc declared independence. These places were ruled by the veteran rulers such as Thirumalai Nayak, Reghunatha Nayak, Krishnappa Nayak who encouraged the Telugu men under their shadow and extended them all sorts of assistances. As a result of it many of the natives were accommodated in their military and they were made as to fight against Mysore, Sethupathi’s of Ramnad and Travancore rulers. The Nayaks gave preference to the Telugu people in the day today administration and governmental affairs. Lot of lands were presented to them as free gifts. So during their administration, most of the lands came under the direct control of the Telugu speaking people. In course of time the Telugu people became prosperous and were called as land owning people in Tamil Nadu. They commanded much respect in the society. After attaining growth in their areas they concentrated their attention upon the neighbouring districts like Virudhunagar, Tirunelveli, Madurai, Trichi, Dharapuri etc. They permanently settled in these areas and developed the culture of their own. They flourished along with their agricultural works. During the British administration the Telugu people, especially the Reddiyars became prosperous as a result of their welfares measures and reforms activities. The British consolidated the principalities of Madras presidency for the easy administration. The consolidation of British administration under Madras presidency made easy for all the people of the region to migrate easily from one place to another. Naturally the Telugu people freely moved from one place to another for their food and shelter. Being prosperous they were devoid of any hurdles or obstruction for their settlement in any of the places in the presidency. Hence, the Reddiyar Community, the prominent among the Telugu speaking established their families at the suburbs of Virudhunagar, Tirunelveli, Ramnad, Kamudhi, Trichi, South Arcot, North Arcot, Hosur and other places.

    Reddy Immigration of community

    Indira Gandhi’s land reform policy in 1969 of putting a ceiling on personal income and private property affected the rich Reddy land lords in the state of Andhra Pradesh and most of them now live in Middle class. Economic changes that took place during the 1960’s and 70’s triggered the migration of the community to North America. Also for this same reason Tirunelveli Reddiyars who are farmers migrated to Kerala .

    In the 2004, the American Medical Association survey of last or middle names in United States revealed 4.02% of the practicing physicians had Reddy as their Middle or Last Name[5]. Most of them work in the Information Technology fields and there is a significant Reddy community in Academia and Research at American Universities. Reddys are a very influential and affluent group among the immigrated South Indian communities of North America. Many Reddys who were educated between 1940 and 1950 migrated to USA and UK, but Reddy communities from places where reservations are 100% are leading hand to mouth as agricultural labor. The Reddy community is also a major comunity in Karnataka and Tamilnadu. Most of the Tamilnadu Reddys are the people migrated from the neighbouring Rayalseema and Andhra areas and the roots are very hard to trace. In Karnataka most Reddys work in agriculture.

    Reddy Confusion with the Reddy Name

    Reddys like most of the Telugus have the system of a family name or last name, followed by a given name or first name and then a caste name. Example: Neelam Sanjiva Reddy. Neelam is the family name, Sanjiva is the given name and Reddy is caste name. The correct form of address would be Mr. Reddy (not Mr. Neelam). The middle name (Reddy) performs the equivalent function of a North American last name. A clan is identified by its family name, i.e Neelam. So all three names or parts of the name have their function in this case. Since in North America there is no provision to have Family name and Caste name. Reddys are forced to make one into middlename and other into Last name and which one will become which is completely up to their personal discretion. From the above example of Neelam Sanjiva Reddy all three combinations (Sanjiva R. Neelam, Sanjiva N. Reddy and Neelam S. Reddy) are possible and existent in North America.

    Reddy Role in politics

    Historically, Reddys dominated the politics of the south India and are the most powerful caste in wealthand are highly educated. Interestingly, the sixth President of India, Neelam Sanjiva Reddy and some of the chief ministers of the State of Andhra Pradesh and many Notable Reddy personalities come from Middle class and very poor families . Dr. Bejawada Gopalareddy served as the chief minister of Andhra State from March, 1955 to October, 1956. Ten of the twenty[3] elected Chief Ministers of Andhra Pradesh including the present chief minister of Andhra Pradesh Dr. Y.S.Rajasekhara Reddy are from the Reddy community. Sixth President of India, Neelam Sanjiva Reddy who was in office from 1977 to 1982 is also from the Reddy community. Even though the population of Reddys is 11% in the state of Andhra Pradesh they occupy 40% of the state legislative assembly seats (MLA) and had played a vital role in the social and economic development of the state of Andhra Pradesh. Situation is changing from the last ten years because of the rise of reservations at every level and more and more people are opposing the reddy dominations. If the same trend continues it is very hard to have many reddy politicicians in the coming days. The community is very devided bacuse of the many sub castes and even religions. for example out of the Five chief ministers of Andhra pradesh four belonged to Christian religion and they are YSR, Janardhan Reddy and Kasu brahmananda reddy .Chenna reddy belonged to the kapu community and Anjaiah belonged to the Gone sub caste.Neelam Sanjiva reddy bolonged to pakanati.Motati and Gudati are yet become chief misisters though they are more popular compared to others as they always fight with the other.

    Incidentally, the first chief ministers of the states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu were from the reddy caste:

    * First Chief minister of Andhra Pradesh: Neelam Sanjiva Reddy (1-11-1956 –10-1-1960)* First Chief Minister of Karnataka: Sri Kyasamballi Chengalaraya Reddy (25-10-1947 30-03-1952)* First Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu: O P Ramaswamy Reddiyar[4] (March 23, 1947 April 06, 1949)

    Prominent Reddiars

    • Diwan Bahadur Agaram Subbarayalu Reddiar A. Subbarayalu Reddiar – Chief Minister of Madras Presidency – Dec 1920 – June 1921
    • V. Venkatasubha Reddiar – Former Chief Minister of Pondicherry and a prominent Pondicherry freedom fighter [4]
    • O. P. Ramaswamy Reddiyar – Chief Minister of Madras Presidency – 1947-1949
    • Vaithilingam – Chief Minister of Pondicherry – July 4, 1991 to May 13, 1996 (first term), September 4, 2008 – April 13,2011
    • Muthukomarappa Reddiar – Prominent Pondicherry freedom fighter [5]
    • Annamalai Reddiyar – Tamil poet
    • Diwan Bahadur Sir S. Kumaraswami Reddiar (b. April 23, 1876) was an Indian lawyer and politician who served as a minister in Madras Presidency.
    • M. D. R. Ramachandran – Chief Minister of Pondicherry – 16 January 1980 – 23 June 1983
    • Krishnamurthy Reddiar – Prominent herbal practitioner from Sri Lanka[6]Reddy Politicians* O P Ramaswamy Reddy – Former Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu*Neelam Sanjiva Reddy – Former President of India and Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh*Dr. S. Jaipal Reddy – Information & Broadcasting Minister, Government Of India (2004-till date)*T. Anjaiah (alias Ramakrishnareddi Talla)[6] —Former Chief Minister of Andhra pradesh.*Dr. Y.S. Rajasekhara Reddy – Current Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh*Dr. Marri Chenna Reddy – Former Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh* Suravaram Sudhakar Reddy*Dr. Bejawada Gopalareddy* Kysamballi Chengalraya Reddy -first Chief Minister of the old Mysore state*Kasu Brahmananda Reddy – Former Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh* Bhavanam Venkatrami Reddy – Former Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh*Kotla VijayaBhaskara Reddy – Former Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh*Nedurumalli Janardhan Reddy – Former Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh* P.Sundarayya – Communist party leader

      Reddy – Non-Politicans

      * Raja Bahaddur Venkatram Reddy* Suravaram Pratap Reddy* Cattamanci Ramalinga Reddy – Educationalist, First vice chancellor of Andhra university* Potu Narsimha Reddy –Social Reformer, Satyagraha Movement Member* G. Pulla Reddy – Entrepreneur and educationalist* Prof. G. Ram Reddy – Former University Grants Commission chairman* Dr. Anji Reddy – entrepreneur-scientist (Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories)* Dr. C. Narayana Reddy – Poet* Dr. Hanumandla Rajinder Reddy – MD, Cardiologist, California.* Yogi Vemana (Real Name: Gona Vema Buddha Reddy) – Poet* Vedre Ramachandra Reddy Bhoodhan – Social Reformer, Satyagraha Movement Member* Dr. Raj Reddy – winner of the ACM Turing Award* Dr. Y. Venugopal Reddy – present Governor of Reserve Bank of India (RBI)* Annamalai Reddiyar – Tamil Poet, 19th Century.* P. Siva Reddy – Eye surgeon* Dr. M. Mahadeva Reddi – Mechanical Engineer and Entrepreneur – Founder of Conrad Technologies

       

    REFERENCES

    1. Ray Choudhary, S.C., Social, cultural and economic history of India, New Delhi, 2005. pp.117-122.

    2. Vidhya Bushan, D.R., Sachdeva, An introduction to Sociology, 31st (ed.), Allagabad, 1988, p.369.

    3. Ibid., p.369

    . 4. Pillai, G.K., Origin and Development of Caste, Allahabad, 1958, pp.41-42.

    5. Ob.cit. – p.224.

    6. Singh, K.S., People of India series Volume VI India’s Communities, N-Z. Anthropological Survey of India, New Delhi, 1998, pp.3005-3008.

    7. Ranga chari, K., Castes and Tribes of Southern India, Edgar Thurston, Vol-III-K, New Delhi, 1909, p.227.

    8. Ibid., p.227.

    9. Ibid., p.224.

    10. Ibid., p.225.

    11. Talboys Wheeler, Madras on older Times, Madras, 1861, p.41.

    12. Ibid., p.226.

    13. Rangachari, K., Castes and Tribes of Southern India, Edgar Thurston, Vol-III-K, New Delhi, 1909, p.223.

    14. Ramaswami, A., Tamil Nadu District Gazetteers, Ramanathapuram (Gazetteers of India), Madras, 1972, p.145.

    15. Reprot, Census of the Madras Presidings 1871, Madras 1874, pp.145-146.

    16. Nilakanta Sastri, K.A., Advanced History of India; Madras, 1970, p.402.

    17. Nilakanta Sastri, K.A., A History of South India; Madras, 1966, p.295.

    18. Ramaswami, A., Tamil Nadu District Gazetteers Ramanathapuram, Madras, 1972, pp. 82-85.

    19. Rao, P.R., History of Modern Andhra, New Delhi, 1980, p.118.

    20. Mangalamurugesan, N.K., Self respect movement in Tamil Nadu, 1920 – 1940, Madurai, 1985, p.161.

    21. Ramasamy, A., Gazetteer of India Tamil Nadu state, Ramanathapurm (e.d.), Madras, 1972, 145.

    22. Rao, P.R., History of modern Andhra, New Delhi, 1980, p.118.

    23.Edger,Thurston(1909). Caste and Tribes of South India volume 3. Madras: Asian Educational Services. pp. 3366. ISBN 8120602889, 9788120602885.

    24.Shungoonny Menon, P (1998). History of Travancore from the earliest times. Madras: Asian Educational Services. pp. 523. ISBN 8120601696, 9788120601697.

    25.SUBRAMANIAN, T.S (10 September 2011). “Do Tamil Nadu temple murals portray Tamiraparani battle?”. TheHindu (Chennai, India). Retrieved 10 September 2011.

    26. www.hinduonnet.com/2005/06/07/stories/2005060704130300.htm

    27. “The men behind the Pondicherry freedom movement”. The Hindu (Chennai, India). 26 July 2005.

    28. http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/life/2006/02/10/stories/2006021000140300.htm

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